There are three main types of glass. All are found in common places, the easiest way to tell is by the way it breaks!
Tempered glass is a a heat strengthened glass used for safety reasons. Found in sliding glass doors, showers, and table tops. Tempered glass breaks into tiny peices as opposed to shards, it can also withstand heat temperatures up to 400 degrees!
Annealed glass is found in house windows. 1/8 clear annealed gass is the most common glass used for double panned units. Annealed glass breaks into giant shards.
Laminated glass is two peices of annealed glass sealed together by a film to act as a safety glass. All windshields are made with laminated glass. Laminated glass can withstand damage, unlike tempered glass. If tempered glass is damaged, the entire peice of glass will "pop" into a million peices! That is very unsafe for a windshield, which is why laminated glass is used for cars.